//What is NFC(Near Field Communication)?
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What is NFC(Near Field Communication)?

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-extend remote availability standard (Ecma-340, ISO/IEC 18092). Jointly developed by Philips and Sony, the standard specifies a way for the devices to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network to exchange data After the P2P network has been configured, another wireless communication technology, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, can be used for longer range communication or transferring large amounts of data.

Uses NFC?

The NFC device is used in a contactless payment system, similar to those used in credit card and electronic ticket smartcard and allows mobile systems to change or supplement these systems. It is sometimes known as NFC / CTLS (contactless) or CTLS NFC. To share contacts, photos, videos or files, NFC is used for social networking. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identification documents and keycards. NFC provides a low speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections.Working with NFC?

NFC is contained in Radio Frequency Identification Technology (known as RFID) which allows compatible hardware to supply with unprotected and passive electronic tags using radio waves. It is used for identity, authentication and tracking.

NFC Card Emulation

Enables an NFC-enabled device such as Smartphone to act like a smartphone, which allows users to make transactions such as payment or tickets.

NFC Reader / Writer

Enables NFC-enabled devices to read information stored on the inexpensive NFC tag embedded in labels or smart posters.

NFC Peer-to-Peer

An advertisement enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each other in exchange for information in fashion.

Vulnerabilities

Although the NFC limit is limited to a few centimeters, the plain NFC does not ensure secure communication. In 2006, Ernst Hasliner and Clemens described potential attacks and explained how to take advantage of the NFC’s resistance for human-in-the-middle attacks to establish detailed information. Since this technique is not part of the ISO standard, NFC does not provide any protection against hiding and data can be vulnerable to modifications. Applications can use high-layer cryptographic protocols (eg, SSL) to install a secure channel.

Wireless data transfer can be picked up with RF signal antennas. From the distance from which the attacker is capable of hiding the RF signal depends on many standards, but generally less than 10 meters.  A passive device that does not generate its own RF area is more difficult than an active device. An attacker can usually hide within 10 meters and 1 meter for active devices and passive devices.

Since NFC devices generally include the ISO / IEC 14443 protocol, relay attacks are possible. For this attack the reader raises the victim’s request to the reader and pretends to be the master of the victim’s smart card, and responds to the reader in real time. This is similar to a man-in-the-middle attack. A libnfc code example demonstrates relay attack using two stock commercial NFC devices. This attack can only be implemented using two NFC-enabled mobile phones.

Standards

NFC standards include communication protocols and data exchange formats. So based on existing RFID standards including ISO / IEC and Felica. Standards are defined by the ISO / IEC and NFC Forum.

ISO / IEC

NFC has been standardized in ECMA-340 and ISO / IEC 18092. These standards specify the modulation scheme of RF interface of RFC interface, coding, transfer speed and frame format, as well as the initial plans and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization, both for passive and active NFC mode. They also define transport protocols, including protocol activation and data-exchange methods.

  • ISO / IEC 18092 / ECMA-340-Near NFC and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1)
  • ISO / IEC 21481 / ECMA-352-NFC and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2)

NFC includes several current standards including ISO / IEC 14443 Type A and Type B, and Felica. NFC-enabled phones work on a basic level with existing readers. In “Card Emulation Mode” an NFC device must send at least one reader a unique ID number. In addition, the NFC Forum has defined a general data format called NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) which can store and transport items from any MIME-type object to ultra-short RTD-documents such as URL. The NFC Forum added simple NDEF Exchange Protocol (SNEP) to the spec that allows sending and receiving messages between two NFC devices.

GSM

The GSM Association (GSMA) is a trade union that represents over 800 mobile telephony operators and more than 200 products and service companies in 219 countries. Many of its members have led NFC tests and are preparing services for commercial launch.

GSM is linked to several initiatives:      

  • Standards: GSMA is developing certification and testing standards to ensure the global interaction of NFC services.
  • Pay-By-Mobile Initiative: Demands to define a common global approach to using NFC technology to connect mobile devices with payments and contactless systems.
  • On November 17, 2010, after two years of discussions, AT & T, Verizon and T-Mobile launched a joint venture to develop a platform through which payment of sales payments in cell phones using NFC Could have been. Initially known as Isis Mobile Wallet and later known as softcards. The enterprise was designed to bring in the comprehensive deployment of NFC technology. So which NFC-enabled cell phones of their customers will be available in the entire US Could have worked like a credit card After an agreement with Google-and IP purchases, the softcard payment system was closed in March 2015 with the support of its first rival, Google Wallet.

StoLPaN

Stolpany (Store logistics and payment with NFC) is a pan-European Union supported by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies Program. StoLPaN NFC will also investigate the possibility of local wireless mobile communications.

NFC Forum

The NFC Forum is a non-profit industry association formed on March 18, 2004, to further enhance the use of NFC wireless interaction in consumer electronics, mobile devices and PCs by NXP Semiconductors, Sony and Nokia. The standards include four different tag types that provide flexibility, memory, security, data retention and endurance communication, and the various capacities and capabilities. NFC Forum promotes the implementation and standardization of NFC technology to ensure interoperability between device and services. By June 2013, there were more than 190 member companies in the NFC Forum.

The NFC forum promotes NFC and the device certifies compliance and whether it fits into a personal area network.

Other standardization bodies

GSMA defined a platform for the deployment of GSMA NFC standard within the mobile handset. GSMA’s efforts include single wire protocols, testing and certification and secure elements. The GSMA standards are not unique around the deployment of NFC protocols (governed by the NFC forum) on mobile handsets nor are universally accepted. For example, Google deploys a host of card emulation on Android KitKat provides software control of a universal radio.

Supporting Devices

In 2011, handset sellers discharged more than 40 NFC-empowered handsets with the Android versatile working framework. The iPhone 6 line is the main arrangement of handsets from Apple to help NFC. BlackBerry gadgets bolster NFC utilizing BlackBerry labels on Blackberry OS 7.0 and generally gadgets.

MasterCard added NFC support for PayPal for Android and BlackBerry platforms. So making Papas users able to pay using their Android or Blackberry smartphones. The partnership between Samsung and Visa added a ‘payway’ app to the Galaxy S4 smartphone.

Microsoft added native NFC functionality to its mobile OS with Windows Phone 8 as well as Windows 8 operating systems. Microsoft offers “Wallet Hub” in Windows Phone 8 for NFC payments. And can integrate many NFC payment services into one app.